One school of thought says to appoint a "devil's advocate." The term comes from a former practice in the Catholic Church to appoint a person to argue against anointing a person to be a saint. Klein says it doesn't work. Why? Because the advocate is assigned to take a hard-line position, there is no give-and-take and thus no meaningful dialogue.
Klein writes that it is impossible to "clone" authentic dissent. His alternative: a premortem where the team gets together at the start of the decision-making process, before its members become invested in an outcome. Tell the team to imagine that a crystal ball has shown that after a month or so after launch, the project failed. Ask them to write down the reasons why it did.
Doing so frees up people from the fear of speaking up, Klein writes. Because everyone participates, the team members gain respect by suggesting reasons that are insightful and nonstandard.
The bottom line: The project injects uncertainty decision making. That’s a positive.